Posterior Maxilla Pg 10

Management of the Posterior Maxilla in the Compromised Patient: Historical, Current, and Future Perspectives



Thomas J. Balshi & Glenn J. Wolfinger
Periodontology 2000, Vol 33, 2003, 67-81.

1. Zarb GA, Zarb FL, Schmitt A. Osseointegrated implants for partially edentulous patients. Dent Clin North Am 1987;31:457-472.
2. Nevins M, Fiorellini JP. Placement of maxillary posterior implants. In: Nevins M and Mellonig JT(eds). Implant Therapy, Clinical Approaches and Evidence of Success, Vol 2. Chicago: Quintessence, 1998:153-169.
3. Martel MH. About single units, abutments, and interlocks, implants and experts. Presented at the American Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics, Chicago, 19-20 Feb 1993.

4. Gibbs C, Mahan P, Mauderli A. Limits of human bite strength. J Prosthet Dent 1986;56:226-237.

5. Hagberg C. Assessment of bite force: A review. J Craniomandib Disord Facial Oral Pain 1987; 1:162-169.

6. Brunski JB. Forces on dental implatns and interfacial stress transfer. In: Laney WR, Tolman DE (eds). Tissue Integration in Oral, Orthopedic and Maxillofacial Reconstruction. Chicago: Quintessence, 1990:108-124.

7. Balshi TJ. Preventing and resolving complications with osseointegrated implants. Dent Clin North Am 1989;33:821-868.

8. Jaffin RA, Berman CL. The excessive loss of Brånemark fixtures in type IV bone: a 5-year analysis. J Periodontol 1991;62:2-4.

9. Schnitman P, DaSilva J, Wöhrle P, Wang H, Koch G. Influence of site on implant survival: seven-year results ([abstract 1664]. J Dent Res 1993;72(3)(special issue):311.

10. Widmark G, Andersson B, Carlsson G, Lindvall A-M, Ivanoff C-J. Rehabilitation of patients with severely resorbed maxillae by means of implants with or without bone grafts: a 3- to 5-year follow-up clinical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2001;16:73-79.

11. Bahat O. Brånemark System implants in the posterior maxilla: clinical study of 660 implants followed for 5 to 12 years. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:646-653.

12. Lazzara R, Seddiqui AA, Binon P, Feldman SA, Weiner R, Phillips R, Gonshor A. Retrospective multicenter analysis of 3I endosseous dental implants placed over a five-year period. Clin Oral Implants Res 1996;7:73-83.

13. Haas R, Mensdorff-Pouilly N, Mailath G, Watzek G. Success of 1,920 IMZ implants followed for up to 100 months. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1996:11:581-588.

14. Buchs AU, Hahn J, Vassos DM. Interim clinical study report: a threaded, hydroxylapatite-coated implant — Five-year post-restoration safety and efficacy. J Oral Implantol 1995;21(4):266-274.

15. Langer B, Langer L, Harman I, Jorneus L. The wide fixture: a solution for special bone situations and a rescue for the compromised implant. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8:400-408.

16. Summers RB. A new concept in maxillary implant surgery: the osteotome technique. Compendium 1994;15(2):152-156.

17. Aparicio C, Perales P, Rangert B. Tilted implants as an alternative to maxillary sinus grafting: a clinical, radiologic, and periotest study. Clin Impl Dent 2001;3(1):39-49.

18. Krekmanov L. Placement of posterior mandibular and maxillary implants in patients with seere bone deficiency: a clinical report of procedure. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:722-730.

19. Breine U, Brånemark P-I. Reconstruction of alveolar jaw bone. An experimental and clinical study of immediate and preformed autologous bone grafts in combination with osseointegrated implants. Scand J Plast Reconstructive Surg 1980;14:23:48.

20. Triplett RG, Schow SR, Laskin DM. Oral and maxillofacial surgery advances in implant dentistry. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:47-55.

21. Verhoeven JW, Cune MS, Terlou M, Zoon MAOW, de Putter C. The combined use of endosteal implants and iliac crest onlay grafts in the severely atrophic mandible: a longitudinal study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997;26:351-357.

22. Hochwald DA, Davis WH. Bone grafting in the maxillary sinus floor. In Worthington P, Brånemark P-I (eds.) Advanced Osseointegration Surgery: Applications in the Maxillofacial Region. Chicago:Quintessence, 1992:175-181.

23. Smiler DG et al. Sinus lift grafts and endosseous implants: treatment of the atrophic posterior maxilla. Dent Clin North Am 1992;36(1):151-188.

24. Jensen OT, Shulman LB, Block MS, Iacono VJ. Report of the Sinus Consensus Conference of 1996. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1998;13(supplement).

25. Nevins M, Fiorellini JP. The maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure to support implant prostheses. In: Nevins M, Mellonig JT (eds.) Implant Therapy: Clinical Approaches and Evidence of Success, vol. 2. Chicago:Quintessence, 19981998:171-195.

26. Balshi TJ. Single, tuberosity-osseintegrated implant support for a tissue-integrated prosthesis. Int J Periodont Rest Dent 1992;12:345-357.

27. Hure G. Scanner superimposed technique for the tuberosity-pterygoid implant positioning. Presented at the Advanced Osseointegration Course, Courchevel, France, February 1991.

28. Tulasne JF. Osseointegrated fixtures in the pterygoid region. In: Worthington P, Brånemark P-I (eds.) Advanced Osseointegration Surgery: Applications in the Maxillofacial Region. Chicago:Quintessence, 1992:182-188.

29. Reiser GM. Implant use in the tuberosity, pterygoid, and palatine region: anatomic and surgical considerations. In: Nevins M, Mellonig JT (eds.) Implant Therapy: Clinical Approaches and Evidence of Success, vol. 2. Chicago:Quintessence, 1998:197-207.

30. Lee SP, Paik KS, Kim MK. Anatomical study of the pyramidal process of the palatine bone in relation to implant placement in the posterior maxilla. J Oral Rehabilitation 2001;28:125-132.

31. Balshi TJ, Wolfinger GJ, Balshi SF. Analysis of 356 pterygomaxillary implants in edentulous arches for fixed prosthesis anchorage. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1999;14:398-406.

32. Balshi TJ, Lee HY, Hernandez R. The use of pterygomaxillary implants in the partially edentulous patient: a preliminary report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1995;10:89-98.

33. Bahat O. Osseointegrated implants in the maxillary tuberosity: report of 45 consecutive patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1992;7:459-467.

34. Tulasne JF. Implant treatment of missing posterior dentition. In: Albrektsson T, Zarb GA (eds). The Brånemark Osseointegrated Implant. Chicago: Quintessence, 1989.

35. Khayat P, Nader N. The use of osseointegrated implatns in the maxillary tuberosity. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent 1994;6:53-61.

36. Graves S. The pterygoid plate implant: a solution for restoring the posterior maxilla. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1994;14:513-523.

37. Ibid

38. Wolfaardt JF, Granström G, Friberg B, Jha N, Tjellström A. A retrospective study on the effects of chemotherapy on osseointegration. J Facial and Somato Prosthetics 1996;2:99-107.

39. Murrah VA. Diabetes mellitus and associated oral manifestations: a review. J Oral Pathol. 1985;14:271-281.

40. Kiokkevoid PR. Periodontal Medicine: Assessment of risk factors for disease. CDA Journal 1999;27(2)135-142.

41. Smith RA, Berger R, Dodson TB. Risk factors associated with dental implants in healthy and medically compromised patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Impl 1992;7:367-372.

42. Goodson WH, Hunt TK. Wound healing and the diabetic patient. Surg Gyn Obstet 1979;149:600-608.

43. Larkin JG, Frier BM, Ireland JT. Diabetes mellitus and infection. Postgrad Med J. 1985;6:233-237.

44. Rothwell BR, Richard EL. Diabetes mellitus: medical and dental consideration. Spec Care Dent 1984;4:58-65.

45. Grossi S, Skrepcinski F, et al. Response to periodontal therapy in diabetics and smokers. J Periodontol 1996;67(10-supplement):1094-1102.

46. Kapur KK et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of mandibular implant-supported overdentures and conventional dentures in diabetic patients. Part I: Methodology and clinical outcomes. J Prosthet Dent 1998;79(5):555-569.

47. Shernoff AF, Colwell JA, Bingham SF. Implants for type II diabetic patients: interim report. VA implants in diabetes study group. Impl Dent 1994;3(3)183-185.

48. Balshi TB, Wolfinger GJ. Dental implants in the diabetic patient — a retrospective study. Impl Dent 1999;8(4):355-359.

49. Bain CA. Smoking and implant failure — Benefits of a smoking cessation protocol. Int J Oral Maxillofac Impl 1996;11(6);756-759.

50. Bain CA, Moy PK. The association between the failure of dental implants and cigarette smoking. Int J Oral Maxillofac Impl 1993;8(6):609.

51. Kan JYK, Rungcharassaeng K, Lozada JL, Goodacre CJ. Effects of smoking on implant success in grafted maxillary sinuses. J Prosthet Dent 1999;82:307-311.

52. Hanauer SB. Bone density and IBD: introduction and overview. In: Bone density in inflammatory bowl disease, CME clinical monograph. Highlights of a symposium sponsored by the U of Chicago Pritzker School of Medecine, Crohn’s & Colitis Foundtion of America, Health Learning Systems. 2001:2.

53. Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, Inc website:

54. Urist MR. Bone: formation by autoinduction. Science 1965;150:893899.

55. Wang EA, Rosen V, Cordes P, Hewick RM, Kriz MJ, Luxenberg DP, Sibley BS, Wozney JM. Purification and characterization of other distinct bone-inducing factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:9484-9488.

56. Wozney JM, Rosen V, Celeste AJ, Mitsock LM, Whitters MJ, Kriz Rw, Hewick RM, Wang EA. Novel regulators of bone formation; molecular clones and activities. Science 1988;242:1528-1534.

57. Wikesjö UME, Hanisch O, Danesh-Meyer MJ. RhBMP-2 for alveolar bone reconstruction in implant dentistry. Dental News Website:

58. Sigurdsson TJ, Fu E, Tatakis DN, Rohrer MD, Wikesjö UME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 enhances per-implant bone regeneration and osseointegration. Clin Oral Implants Res 1997;8:367-374.

59. Cochran DL, Schenk R, Buser D, Wozney JM, Jones AA. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulation of bone formation around endosseous dental implants. J Periodontol 1999;70:139-150.

60. Hanisch O, Tatakis DN, Boskovic MM, Rohrer MD, Wikesjö UME. Bone formation and reosseointegration in peri-implantitis defects following surgical implantation of rhBMP-2. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:604-610.

61. Hanisch O, Tatakis DN, Rohrer MD, Wohrle PS, Wozney JM, Wikesjö UME. Bone formation and osseointegration stimulated by rhBMP-2 following subantral augmentation procedures in nonhuman primates. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:785-792.

PDF Format

Pi Dental Center, Fort Washington, PA